PFAS in Water and Environment: Understanding, Impacts, Legislation, and Treatment Methods

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a large group of man-made chemicals that have become a major concern for the environment and public health. PFAS are widely used in various industrial and consumer applications due to their unique properties, such as heat and chemical resistance, oil and water repellence, and non-stick properties. However, the same characteristics that make PFAS useful also make them highly persistent and mobile in the environment and potentially toxic to humans and wildlife. In this blog post, we will discuss the basics of PFAS, how they enter the environment, the impacts of PFAS, legislative actions taken, and the latest treatment methods to address PFAS contamination.

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What are PFAS and how do they enter the environment?

PFAS are a diverse group of compounds, consisting of carbon-fluorine bonds and various other elements, such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Some of the most commonly used PFAS are perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), which have been phased out in some countries due to their toxicity and persistence. However, PFAS continue to be used in many other products, such as firefighting foams, non-stick cookware, waterproof clothing, and food packaging.

PFAS can enter the environment through various pathways, such as direct releases from manufacturing plants, landfills, wastewater treatment plants, and firefighting training sites. PFAS can also migrate from soil and groundwater into surface water bodies, such as rivers, lakes, and oceans, where they can accumulate in fish and other aquatic organisms. PFAS can also enter the atmosphere and travel long distances, where they can deposit into water and soil.

Impacts and problems from PFAS contamination

The impacts of PFAS contamination on the environment and human health are still being studied, but several studies have linked PFAS exposure to adverse health effects, such as cancer, immune system dysfunction, developmental problems, and hormone disruption. PFAS can accumulate in human and animal tissues over time and persist for decades in the environment. PFAS have also been found to bioaccumulate in the food chain, with higher levels detected in predators such as birds of prey.

PFAS contamination can also have economic impacts, as it can affect property values and increase cleanup costs for affected sites. PFAS contamination has been found in various regions around the world, including drinking water supplies, groundwater, surface water, and soil.

Legislation banning PFAS in the US and Europe

Due to the growing concerns about the environmental and health impacts of PFAS, several countries and regions have taken steps to regulate or ban the use of PFAS in certain applications. In the United States, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020 includes provisions that prohibit the Department of Defense from using firefighting foam that contains PFAS and require the Environmental Protection Agency to set a drinking water standard for certain PFAS. Additionally, several states, such as California, New York, and Michigan, have enacted or proposed laws to restrict or ban PFAS in various products and applications.


In Europe, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) has proposed to restrict the use of PFAS in firefighting foams and to classify some PFAS as substances of very high concern (SVHC) under the REACH regulation. The European Parliament has also called for a complete ban on PFAS in food contact materials by 2030. Several European countries, such as Denmark and Norway, have already banned PFAS in certain products, such as food packaging and textiles.

These legislative actions reflect the growing recognition of the need to address PFAS.

Why is PFAS hard to destroy?

PFAS are difficult to oxidize and destroy due to their unique chemical properties. PFAS molecules contain strong carbon-fluorine (C-F) bonds, which are among the strongest bonds in organic chemistry. These bonds make PFAS highly stable and resistant to degradation by natural processes and conventional treatment methods. Additionally, PFAS have low reactivity, meaning that they are not easily broken down by chemical reactions.

Furthermore, the large variety of PFAS compounds, with different chemical structures and properties, makes it challenging to develop effective treatment methods that can target all types of PFAS. Some treatment methods, such as activated carbon adsorption and reverse osmosis, can remove PFAS from water, but they do not destroy the PFAS molecules, and the spent carbon or membranes may require additional treatment or disposal. Other methods, such as incineration or landfilling, can destroy PFAS, but they may also produce harmful by-products and raise concerns about air emissions or leachate contamination.

In recent years, researchers have been exploring new treatment methods that can break down PFAS into less toxic compounds or mineralize them into harmless substances. These methods include advanced oxidation processes, such as electrochemical oxidation, photocatalysis, and plasma treatment, which use strong oxidants or high-energy sources to initiate chemical reactions and degrade the PFAS molecules. One promising technology is boron-doped diamond electrodes for electrochemical oxidation, which can generate reactive hydroxyl radicals and effectively break the C-F bonds in PFAS molecules. However, these methods are still in the experimental stage and require further testing and optimization before they can be widely adopted for PFAS treatment.

Targeting PFAS removal in municipal wastewater treatment plants and landfills is a good strategy because these facilities are major sources of PFAS contamination in the environment. PFAS can enter the wastewater stream from various sources, such as industrial discharges, household products, and firefighting foam, and can accumulate in the sludge or biosolids produced by the treatment process. The sludge or biosolids are often used as fertilizer or disposed of in landfills, which can lead to PFAS leaching into the soil and groundwater.

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Strategies for PFAS removal from the environment

Targeting PFAS removal in landfills is important because landfills are known to be significant sources of PFAS contamination in groundwater and surface water. Landfills can release leachate, which is a liquid that contains pollutants, including PFAS, and can migrate into nearby water sources. Landfills also produce landfill gas, which can contain PFAS emissions that can affect air quality and human health.

One way to address PFAS contamination in landfills is to use liners and other containment measures to prevent leachate from escaping. Additionally, some landfill operators are implementing PFAS monitoring and testing programs to track the levels of PFAS in their facilities and surrounding areas. Landfill operators can also consider installing treatment systems, such as reverse osmosis or granular activated carbon, to remove PFAS from leachate or landfill gas before discharge or release.

Overall, targeting PFAS removal in municipal wastewater treatment plants and landfills is a proactive approach to preventing PFAS contamination and reducing the potential risks to public health and the environment.

Methods to oxidize PFAS

Various treatment methods have been developed to address PFAS contamination, including adsorption, filtration, biodegradation, and chemical oxidation. However, these methods have limitations, such as high cost, low efficiency, and potential by-product formation.

One of the promising methods to treat PFAS contamination is advanced electrical oxidation (AEO), which uses an electrochemical process to degrade PFAS into non-toxic compounds. AEO can be achieved using different types of electrodes, such as diamond, titanium, and boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. BDD electrodes have been found to be particularly effective for AEO, due to their high electrochemical activity, stability, and durability.

BDD electrodes can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can oxidize PFAS into shorter chain compounds, which are less toxic and more biodegradable. BDD electrodes can also generate hydroxyl radicals (-OH), which are highly reactive and can degrade a wide range of pollutants, including PFAS. AEO with BDD electrodes has been tested in laboratory and pilot-scale studies and has been demonstrated as the leading technology on the market.

How PPU can help you

We have designed and developed customised electrode designs for dealing with a wide range of persistent substances. The ClearFox® DiOx product range is a reactor with customised electrodes that can be added on to any existing wastewater treatment process to oxidise forever chemicals and persistent substances.

ClearFox® DiOx is an innovative and efficient solution for treating wastewater contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). The system uses advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to break down the PFAS and other pollutants into harmless substances, such as carbon dioxide and water.

The ClearFox® DiOx system is designed to be compact and modular, allowing for easy installation and scalability. It can be integrated into existing wastewater treatment plants or used as a standalone system.

ClearFox DiOx for PFAS treatment

One of the key advantages of ClearFox® DiOx is its efficiency in treating PFAS-contaminated wastewater. The system can remove long and short chain PFAS from the wastewater, exceeding regulatory requirements and ensuring compliance with environmental standards. Additionally, ClearFox® DiOx does not have any consumables, and just requires electricity for operation.

ClearFox® DiOx has been successfully applied in various industries, The system can also be used in other applications, such as landfill leachate treatment and groundwater remediation.

In summary, ClearFox® DiOx is an effective and reliable solution for treating PFAS-contaminated wastewater and other POPs. Its advanced oxidation processes and efficient removal rates make it a top choice for industries and municipalities looking to address PFAS contamination and ensure compliance with environmental regulations.

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